Брокер IQ Option разрабатывает мобильную торговлю CFD и валютами

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Брокер IQ Option разрабатывает мобильную торговлю CFD и валютами

Определение содержания и исследование истории доказательств аксиомы параллельности Евклида, или пятого постулата, как одной из аксиом, лежащих в основании классической планиметрии. Разработка Николаем Ивановичем Лобачевским доказательства V постулата.

Основные подходы к определению качества дебиторской задолженности. Разработка V-образной модели качества, обоснование необходимости её построения в системе управления дебиторской задолженности. Система эффективного управления оборотными активами.

The main factors that affect on audit in automated accounting systems. The computer system valuation characteristic test for selling and getting receipts cycle. Consideration knowledge and principles of the programmer used by auditors in their careers.

Financial statements generally value assets based on their historical or acquisition cost. Price-Level Adjusted Historical Cost. Net Realizable Value. Future Profits, Replacement Cost. Valuation of liabilities. Valuation of stockholders equity.

Principles for determining the amount of compensation for the passage of a gas pipeline through undeveloped land and for restricting the right to use real estate located on its way. Deductions for crop reduction due to changes in land structure.

Special features of metals and mining companies. Classification of valuation models and total valuation of explorations properties. Discounted cash flow and multiples. Valuation of a mining company with different methods, cycle importance in it.

Assessment of the key drivers of the value chain and profitability in the textiles sector in Kyrgyzstan, by comparing the garment sewing sector in the two contrasting regions of south and north Kyrgyzstan. Infrastructure in south and north of the country.

Special importance is to be given to the equity of financial institutions. The Basel Committee has raised standards of capital ratios of national banks in Kazakhstan, a concept to harmonize domestic and international approaches to equity was developed.

Protection of cultural heritage as one of the priorities of the cultural policy for all countries of the world. Consideration of the nature of the concept of «vandalism» in criminal law. The study of lawful interests of citizens, society and the state.

Analysis of the variation at the major storage protein loci of homoeologous group 1 chromosomes in winter common wheat cultivars developed in the main breeding center of the Central Steppe of Ukraine. Cultivars developed with the Institute of Genetics.

Русскоязычные платформы для торговли бинарами:

The modeling results of the zonal electric field and the vertical component of the plasma transfer velocity due to electromagnetic drift during magnetic storms were presented. Penetration into the mid-latitude ionosphere during geomagnetic disturbances.

The study of historical dynamics and linguistic change in the making of the modern English language. Comparative analysis of national versions of the vocabulary. The study of the classification of related languages. Features of regional dialects.

The definition of real and complex vector spaces. The calculation of the reference type. Rules of addition and multiplication of scalars. The concept of subset. The direct sum of two subspaces. The calculation of the projection of the vector on the area.

The problem of the strategy and tactics of speech communication in the political media discourse on the example of British political debate. Justifying the need to attract the attention of the recipient by using the language of communication strategies.

The analysis of the paroemia language world image fragment. The peculiarities of modeling «pedagogical» paroemias have been traced in Ukrainian, Russian and German from the point of peculiarities of the concept «teaching» in the different ethnic groups.

A summary of philosophical skepticism Wittgenstein, Strawson, anti-idealistic views Kanta. The description transcendental arguments made as a philosophical refutation of epistemological skeptic. The problems and the range of application of such judgments.

Research and analysis of the category of echo-question from the point of view of its contextual and pragmatic specifics in the communicative environment of the dialogical unity. Investigating the ability of replicas to eliminate information insufficiency.

Vet — a specialist with higher or secondary special education, dealing with the treatment of animals and related duties. Career Path Forecast. The Council on education of the American veterinary medical Association. Western University of Health Sciences.

Description of the symptoms characteristic of various diseases of horses, methods of diagnostics, treatment in the horse breeding. Recommendations on the timing of vaccination, to care for the foals. Correct technique of breeding horses and care for them.

Signs and normal values. Simple diagnostic tests. Normal temperature, pulse and respiration. Normal hematological values. Behavior and restraint. Age of the horse and its ability to learn. Veterinary medicines. The barging horse. Trial and error learning.

Работа с проекциями¶

QGIS allows users to define a global and project-wide CRS (coordinate reference system) for layers without a pre-defined CRS. It also allows the user to define custom coordinate reference systems and supports on-the-fly (OTF) projection of vector and raster layers. All of these features allow the user to display layers with different CRSs and have them overlay properly.

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Обзор поддержки проекций¶

QGIS has support for approximately 2,700 known CRSs. Definitions for each CRS are stored in a SQLite database that is installed with QGIS. Normally, you do not need to manipulate the database directly. In fact, doing so may cause projection support to fail. Custom CRSs are stored in a user database. See section Пользовательские системы координат for information on managing your custom coordinate reference systems.

The CRSs available in QGIS are based on those defined by the European Petroleum Search Group (EPSG) and the Institut Geographique National de France (IGNF) and are largely abstracted from the spatial reference tables used in GDAL. EPSG identifiers are present in the database and can be used to specify a CRS in QGIS.

In order to use OTF projection, either your data must contain information about its coordinate reference system or you will need to define a global, layer or project-w > WKT) specification of the CRS. This projection file has the same base name as the shapefile and a .prj extension. For example, a shapefile named alaska.shp would have a corresponding projection file named alaska.prj .

Whenever you select a new CRS, the layer units will automatically be changed in the General tab of the Project Properties dialog under the Project (Gnome, OS X) or Settings (KDE, Windows) menu.

Настройка системы координат по умолчанию¶

QGIS starts each new project using the global default projection. The global default CRS is EPSG:4326 — WGS 84 ( proj=longlat +ellps=WGS84 +datum=WGS84 +no_defs ), and it comes predefined in QGIS. This default can be changed via the [Select. ] button in the first section, which is used to define the default coordinate reference system for new projects, as shown in figure_projection_1. This choice will be saved for use in subsequent QGIS sessions.

Figure Projection 1:

CRS tab in the QGIS Options Dialog

When you use layers that do not have a CRS, you need to define how QGIS responds to these layers. This can be done globally or project-w >CRS tab under Settings ‣ Options.

На рисунке figure_projection_1 показаны возможные варианты:

  • Prompt for CRS
  • Use project CRS
  • Use default CRS displayed below

If you want to define the coordinate reference system for a certain layer without CRS information, you can also do that in the General tab of the raster and vector properties dialog (see General Menu for rasters and Общие for vectors). If your layer already has a CRS defined, it will be displayed as shown in Vector Layer Properties Dialog .

Установка системы координат из списка слоёв

Right-clicking on a layer in the Map Legend (section Map Legend) prov >Set layer CRS takes you directly to the Coordinate Reference System Selector dialog (see figure_projection_2). Set project CRS from Layer redefines the project CRS using the layer’s CRS.

Перепроецирование «на лету»¶

QGIS supports OTF reprojection for both raster and vector data. However, OTF is not activated by default. To use OTF projection, you must activate the Enable on the fly CRS transformation checkbox in the CRS tab of the Project Properties dialog.

There are three ways to do this:

  1. Select Project Properties from the Project (Gnome, OSX) or Settings (KDE, Windows) menu.
  2. Click on the CRS status icon in the lower right-hand corner of the status bar.
  3. Turn OTF on by default in the CRS tab of the Options dialog by selecting Enable ‘on the fly’ reprojection by default or Automatically enable ‘on the fly’ reprojection if layers have different CRS.

If you have already loaded a layer and you want to enable OTF projection, the best practice is to open the CRS tab of the Project Properties dialog, select a CRS, and activate the Enable ‘on the fly’ CRS transformation checkbox. The CRS status icon will no longer be greyed out, and all layers will be OTF projected to the CRS shown next to the icon.

Figure Projection 2:

Project Properties Dialog

The CRS tab of the Project Properties dialog contains five important components, as shown in Figure_projection_2 and described below:

  1. Enable ‘on the fly’ CRS transformation — This checkbox is used to enable or disable OTF projection. When off, each layer is drawn using the coordinates as read from the data source, and the components described below are inactive. When on, the coordinates in each layer are projected to the coordinate reference system defined for the map canvas.
  2. Filter — If you know the EPSG code, the >

Диалоговое окно Свойства проекта

If you open the Project Properties dialog from the Project menu, you must click on the CRS tab to view the CRS settings.

Opening the dialog from the CRS status icon will automatically bring the CRS tab to the front.

Пользовательские системы координат¶

If QGIS does not prov >Custom CRS. from the Settings menu. Custom CRSs are stored in your QGIS user database. In addition to your custom CRSs, this database also contains your spatial bookmarks and other custom data.

Figure Projection 3:

Custom CRS Dialog

Defining a custom CRS in QGIS requires a good understanding of the PROJ.4 projection library. To begin, refer to “Cartographic Projection Procedures for the UNIX Environment — A User’s Manual” by Gerald I. Evenden, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-284, 1990 (available at ftp://ftp.remotesensing.org/proj/OF90-284.pdf).

This manual describes the use of the proj.4 and related command line utilities. The cartographic parameters used with proj.4 are described in the user manual and are the same as those used by QGIS.

В диалоговом окне Определение пользовательской системы координат требуется всего два параметра для определения собственной проекции:

  1. A descriptive name
  2. The cartographic parameters in PROJ.4 format

To create a new CRS, click the Add new CRS button and enter a descriptive name and the CRS parameters.

Note that the Parameters must begin with a +proj= block, to represent the new coordinate reference system.

You can test your CRS parameters to see if they give sane results. To do this, enter known WGS 84 latitude and longitude values in North and East fields, respectively. Click on [Calculate], and compare the results with the known values in your coordinate reference system.

Default datum transformations¶

OTF depends on being able to transform data into a ‘default CRS’, and QGIS uses WGS84. For some CRS there are a number of transforms available. QGIS allows you to define the transformation used otherwise QGIS uses a default transformation.

In the CRS tab under Settings ‣ Options you can:

  • set QGIS to ask you when it needs define a transformation using Ask for datum transformation when no default is defined
  • edit a list of user defaults for transformations.

QGIS asks which transformation to use by opening a dialogue box displaying PROJ.4 text describing the source and destination transforms. Further information may be found by hovering over a transform. User defaults can be saved by selecting Remember selection.

Работа с проекциями¶

QGIS allows users to define a global and project-wide CRS (coordinate reference system) for layers without a pre-defined CRS. It also allows the user to define custom coordinate reference systems and supports on-the-fly (OTF) projection of vector and raster layers. All of these features allow the user to display layers with different CRSs and have them overlay properly.

Обзор поддержки проекций¶

QGIS has support for approximately 2,700 known CRSs. Definitions for each CRS are stored in a SQLite database that is installed with QGIS. Normally, you do not need to manipulate the database directly. In fact, doing so may cause projection support to fail. Custom CRSs are stored in a user database. See section Пользовательские системы координат for information on managing your custom coordinate reference systems.

The CRSs available in QGIS are based on those defined by the European Petroleum Search Group (EPSG) and the Institut Geographique National de France (IGNF) and are largely abstracted from the spatial reference tables used in GDAL. EPSG identifiers are present in the database and can be used to specify a CRS in QGIS.

In order to use OTF projection, either your data must contain information about its coordinate reference system or you will need to define a global, layer or project-w > WKT) specification of the CRS. This projection file has the same base name as the shapefile and a .prj extension. For example, a shapefile named alaska.shp would have a corresponding projection file named alaska.prj .

Whenever you select a new CRS, the layer units will automatically be changed in the General tab of the Project Properties dialog under the Project (or Settings) menu.

Настройка системы координат по умолчанию¶

QGIS starts each new project using the global default projection. The global default CRS is EPSG:4326 — WGS 84 ( proj=longlat +ellps=WGS84 +datum=WGS84 +no_defs ), and it comes predefined in QGIS. This default can be changed via the Select CRS button in the first section, which is used to define the default coordinate reference system for new projects, as shown in figure_projection_options. This choice will be saved for use in subsequent QGIS sessions.

CRS tab in the QGIS Options Dialog

When you use layers that do not have a CRS, you need to define how QGIS responds to these layers. This can be done globally or project-w >CRS tab under Settings ‣ Options.

  • Prompt for CRS
  • Use project CRS
  • Use default CRS displayed below

If you want to define the coordinate reference system for a certain layer without CRS information, you can also do that in the General tab of the raster and vector properties dialog (see General Properties for rasters and General Properties for vectors). If your layer already has a CRS defined, it will be displayed as shown in General tab in vector layers properties dialog.

CRS in the Layers Panel

Right-clicking on a layer in the Layers Panel (section Layers Panel) prov >Set layer CRS takes you directly to the Coordinate Reference System Selector dialog (see figure_projection_project). Set project CRS from Layer redefines the project CRS using the layer’s CRS.

Define On The Fly (OTF) CRS Transformation¶

QGIS supports on the fly CRS transformation for both raster and vector data. However, OTF is not activated by default. When OTF is off, each layer is drawn using the coordinates as read from the data source. When OTF is on, each layer’s coordinates are transformed to the CRS of the project.

There are three ways to enable On The Fly CRS Transformation:

  • Select Project Properties ‣ CRS from the Project ( or Settings) menu. You can then activate the Enable on the fly CRS transformation (OTF) checkbox in the CRS tab and select the CRS to use (see Coordinate Reference System Selector)
  • Click on the CRS status icon in the lower right-hand corner of the status bar, leading you to the previous dialog.
  • Turn OTF on by default in the CRS tab of the Settings ‣ Options dialog by selecting Enable ‘on the fly’ reprojection by default or Automatically enable ‘on the fly’ reprojection if layers have different CRS.

If you have already loaded a layer and you want to enable OTF reprojection, the best practice is to open the CRS tab of the Project Properties dialog, activate the Enable ‘on the fly’ CRS transformation checkbox, and select a CRS. The CRS status icon will no longer be greyed out, and all layers will be OTF projected to the CRS shown next to the icon.

Project Properties Dialog

Coordinate Reference System Selector¶

This dialog helps you assign a Coordinate Reference System to a project or a layer, provided a set of projection databases. Items in the dialog are:

    Filter: If you know the EPSG code, the >

Looking for a layer CRS? Use the CRS selector.

Sometimes, you receive a layer and you don’t know its projection. Assuming that you have another layer with a val >General tab of the Layer properties dialog, use the Coordinate Reference System selector to assign a projection. Your layer position is then moved accordingly. You may have to do some trial and error in order to find the right position, hence its original CRS.

When operating across layers, for example, computing intersections between two layers, it is important that both layers have the same CRS. To change the projection of an existing layer, it is insufficient to simply change the CRS in that layer’s properties. Instead you must save the layer as a new layer, and choose the desired CRS for the new layer.

Пользовательские системы координат¶

If QGIS does not prov >Custom CRS. from the Settings menu. Custom CRSs are stored in your QGIS user database. In addition to your custom CRSs, this database also contains your spatial bookmarks and other custom data.

Custom CRS Dialog

Defining a custom CRS in QGIS requires a good understanding of the PROJ.4 projection library. To begin, refer to “Cartographic Projection Procedures for the UNIX Environment — A User’s Manual” by Gerald I. Evenden, U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 90-284, 1990 (available at ftp://ftp.remotesensing.org/proj/OF90-284.pdf).

This manual describes the use of the proj.4 and related command line utilities. The cartographic parameters used with proj.4 are described in the user manual and are the same as those used by QGIS.

В диалоговом окне Определение пользовательской системы координат требуется всего два параметра для определения собственной проекции:

  1. A descriptive name
  2. The cartographic parameters in PROJ.4 format

To create a new CRS, click the Add new CRS button and enter a descriptive name and the CRS parameters.

Note that the Parameters must begin with a +proj= block, to represent the new coordinate reference system.

You can test your CRS parameters to see if they give sane results. To do this, enter known WGS 84 latitude and longitude values in North and East fields, respectively. Click on [Calculate], and compare the results with the known values in your coordinate reference system.

Default datum transformations¶

OTF depends on being able to transform data into a ‘default CRS’, and QGIS uses WGS84. For some CRS there are a number of transforms available. QGIS allows you to define the transformation used otherwise QGIS uses a default transformation.

In the CRS tab under Settings ‣ Options you can:

  • set QGIS to ask you when it needs define a transformation using Ask for datum transformation when no default is defined
  • edit a list of user defaults for transformations.

QGIS asks which transformation to use by opening a dialogue box displaying PROJ.4 text describing the source and destination transforms. Further information may be found by hovering over a transform. User defaults can be saved by selecting Remember selection.

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